2022 № 6 Satisfaction of parents with the availability of preferential drug provision for minors
The health and well-being of children is in the first place in the social policy of any state. In relation to children with chronic diseases, a lot of state support measures are being developed, including preferential drug provision. At the same time, the availability and volume of benefits for each particular child can affect the further prognosis of the disease, the social and economic efficiency of the measures taken. The purpose of the study was to identify the reasons for parents' dissatisfaction with the availability and quality of the organization of preferential drug provision for minors. The study was conducted by anonymous questioning of 455 parents of children admitted for inpatient treatment at the FSBEI HE SPb SPMU and the G.I. Turner in 2020, belonging to the preferential category. The study showed that there are restrictions at all stages of the provision of drug benefits. Most parents have low awareness of the child's right to benefits, as well as low legal activity in situations where the child's right is violated.
A third of parents prefer not to use the benefit, fearing obstacles to its implementation. For children eligible for a federal benefit, the availability of drug coverage is significantly higher than for children with a regional benefit.
2021 № 9 Elimination of preventable child mortality as a global task of the XXI century, including in the context of the COVID‑19 pandemic
Despite a sharp reduction (by almost 60 percent) over the past 30 years in the mortality of children and young people, including those under the age of five, the global burden of this problem, according to the UN, remains enormous. The paper provides information on the analysis of data from foreign scientific literature on the indicators of child mortality and its causes in foreign countries, including in the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic. It is during the pandemic that many countries experience interruptions in the provision of maternal and child health services, such as medical examinations, vaccination, prenatal and postpartum care due to lack of resources. Studies show that the overall risk of death from COVID‑19 in children is quite low. The causes of infant mortality are mainly factors associated with neonatal mortality: premature birth, low birth weight, complications during childbirth, neonatal sepsis, as well as infectious diseases, more often pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria, and insufficient vaccination. In order to prevent and reduce global child mortality, strategies are needed to provide adequate medical and social services to the population, as well as poverty eradication programs.
P u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y : to review foreign scientific literature containing information on the analysis of child mortality rates and its causes in foreign countries, including in the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic.
M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s of research: bibliographic, information and analytical methods and methods of comparative analysis were used.
R e s u l t s . Studies have shown that only 122 countries were able to achieve the target of mortality of children under the age of five, designated in the “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) ” – 25 or less deaths per 1,000 live births by 2019. The death rate of young children is highest in areas where the poor, ethnic or religious minorities, indigenous peoples and people who are discriminated against live. Studies conducted in 2020 showed that the overall risk of death from COVID‑19 in children is quite low.
The COVID‑19 pandemic has led to serious disruptions in the work of health services, which threaten to negate efforts to eliminate child mortality.
F i n d i n g s . In order to prevent and reduce global child mortality, strategies are needed to provide adequate medical and social services to the population, programs to eradicate poverty, and provide access to obstetric and prenatal services. Many countries are experiencing disruptions in the provision of maternal and child health services, such as medical examinations, vaccination, prenatal and postnatal care due to a lack of resources during the pandemic. Due to failures in the health system during the COVID‑19 pandemic, additional deaths of children are possible as a result of potential disruption of health systems.
2021 № 4 DYNAMICS OF THE INCIDENCE OF DIABETES MELLITUS AMONG CHILDREN IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FOR 2014–2018 YEARS
Diabetes mellitus among children is one of the urgent health problems due to high morbidity and disability.
Objective – establishing the main trends in the incidence of children.
Materials and methods. A statistical analysis of the data of reporting forms of federal statistical observation No. 12 “Information on the number of diseases registered in patients living in the service area of a medical organization” for the period from 2014 to 2018 was carried out.
Results. During the analyzed period, the incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Russian Federation among children aged 0–17 years increased by 28,1%. In dynamics for 2014–2018 the primary incidence of diabetes among children aged 0–17 years in the Russian Federation increased by 15,5%. In 94,9% of cases of diabetes in children account for type I diabetes. In dynamics for 2014–2018 it grew by 26,2%.
Conclusion. The results of the analysis of diabetes mellitus among children indicate the need for the development of primary prevention of type I in children and raising public awareness of a healthy lifestyle in children
2018 № 8 Base trend on number of Russian children (aged 0–14) require for medical supervision in 2000–2015 years
Growth of Russian children’s incidence is confirmed with many special researches. As has shown the anal¬ysis of Federal statistical observation (form No. 12) for 2000–2015 years, in Russia the number of children at the age of 0–14 years require for medical supervision has grown from 302,6 to 309,0 cases for 1000 per population of the corresponding age (2,1%). The highest increase took place on classes: new growths (105,3%), congenital anomalies (malformations) (63,0%), injuries, poisonings, etc. (56,3%). Decrease in number of the children (0–14 years) require for medical supervision is noted on the following classes: pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period (–70,0%), separate conditions of the perinatal period (–60,6%), some infectious and parasitic diseases (–59,5%), mental disorders and disorders of behavior (–43,1%). The balance of number of the studied group of children for 2015 year is 6,1% at the expense of bigger number registered (55,3%), in comparison with number of struck off the register (49,2%). At the same time the maximum plus balance was observed on the following classes of diseases: separate conditions of the perinatal period (46,5%), injuries, poisonings, etc. (80,0%), diseases of respiratory organs (21,3). The minus balance of number is noted on classes: some infectious and parasitic diseases (–11,6%), mental disorders and disorders of behavior (–2,4%). The number of children require for medical supervision in Russia for the studied period has grown. As soon as, the health of children and teenagers defines health of future nation, its preservation is an important task, which real¬ization demands development of measures for treatment of diseases of this contingent, and, above all – holding preventive actions with definition of their address introduction (school, the house, healthcare institutions).
2020 № 4 Statistics of obesity in children in the Russian Federation for 2014–2018 years
The article presents the statistics of obesity in children for 2014–2018. Over the analyzed period, the overall incidence of obesity in the Russian Federation among children aged 0–17 years increased by 21,4%. In the dynamics for 2014–2018, the primary incidence of obesity among children aged 0–17 years in the Russian Federation increased by 8,7%. The results of the analysis of statistics on obesity among children indicate the need to pay attention to the promotion of breastfeeding, the nutrition of pregnant women, a balanced diet of children and physical activity.
2020 № 5 Incidence of microsporia and trichophytis in the Russian Federation in 2013–2018
Introduction. Purpose. Study of the incidence of microsporia and trichophytis among children. Material and methods. Data of forms of federal statistical observation No. 9 “Data on sexually transmitted infections and contagious skin diseases” in the federal districts of the Russian Federation for the period from 2013 to 2018. The work uses descriptive statistics. Main results. An analysis of the incidence of microsporia in the Russian Federation showed that in the federal districts the dynamics of indicators among children was almost similar to the total population. The highest incidence is found in the Volga and Southern federal districts, both in the general population and among the child population. During the period under study, the incidence of microsporia decreased by 0.2% in the general population and by 8.1% in the infant population. Indicators of trichophytis in both the general population and the infant population were also unstable. At the same time, the incidence of trichophytis in the general population decreased by 7.1%, in children by 11.5%. The most disadvantaged situation in trichophytia was observed in the North Caucasus Federal District, further as the Far East and Siberian federal districts declined. Among the children between the ages of 0 and 14, an unprecedented high incidence rate is observed in the North Caucasus Federal District: from 28.8 in 2014 to 34.7 in 2016, which is higher than in the country as a whole by 4, 4 and 6.7 times, respectively. Conclusion. During the period under study, the incidence of microsporia decreased by 0.2%, among the infant population – by 8.1%, the incidence of trichophytia – 7.1% and 11.5%, respectively.
2016 № 8 Family-oriented approach to child health care
In this review article you can consider the parent involvement in children medical care, because in paediatric practise precisely parents can influence good relationship with parents and whole healthcare system, what is more they can influence the compliance on attitude between patient (parents or legal representatives) and health provider. The last decade researches indicate the necessity of parent involvement in all stages of medical assistance to children, moreover the last surveys showed that family-centred approaches are highly-efficient. The competence of paediatricians in working with parents and the concept of family-oriented approach in foreign literature are being considered in this topic. Moreover, the advantages of using family-centred approach and barriers, including staff shortages, interrupting the process of using this model, are being under special control in this topic. There are many variants of changing and ways of implementation offering in this article. In conclusion, there is a statement that implementation family-centered medical care to children in whole medical care system requires comprehensive changes in all stages of medical care quality ensuring, including medical care organizers professional outlook, adjusting the regulatory framework and standards of training specialists.