Articles with tag: «children»

    Sociology of healthcare
  • 2023 № 6 Opinion of pediatric otorhinolaryngologists on the main problems in the organization of medical care and priority areas of activity of the professional medical community.

    A medical and sociological study was carried out in order to determine the opinion of specialists on current problems in the organization of children’s otorhinolaryngological care and on the priority areas of activity of the professional medical community. Five main medical and organizational problems in the organization of children’s otolaryngological care are identified: maintaining and developing human resources, stimulating the work of medical workers; improvement of resource support for assistance, stimulation of investments in the development of the material, technical and technological base; increasing the availability of qualified assistance; management optimization;
    improvement of methodological support and introduction of modern technologies for rendering assistance. Pediatric otorhinolaryngologists consider the main activities of the professional community to be: representing the legitimate interests of the Association members, promoting the protection of their professional and social rights; assistance and participation in advanced training and professional retraining of specialists; professional consolidation, strengthening and development of relations between specialists; meeting the needs of specialists in obtaining knowledge about the latest achievements, advanced domestic and foreign experience.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Oleinik A. V. [2]

    Tags: association of pediatric otorhinolaryngologists1 children13 children’s ent doctors1 ent diseases3 otorhinolaryngological care2 professional medical communities1

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  • 2022 № 6 Satisfaction of parents with the availability of preferential drug provision for minors

    The health and well-being of children is in the first place in the social policy of any state. In relation to children with chronic diseases, a lot of state support measures are being developed, including preferential drug provision. At the same time, the availability and volume of benefits for each particular child can affect the further prognosis of the disease, the social and economic efficiency of the measures taken. The purpose of the study was to identify the reasons for parents' dissatisfaction with the availability and quality of the organization of preferential drug provision for minors. The study was conducted by anonymous questioning of 455 parents of children admitted for inpatient treatment at the FSBEI HE SPb SPMU and the G.I. Turner in 2020, belonging to the preferential category. The study showed that there are restrictions at all stages of the provision of drug benefits. Most parents have low awareness of the child's right to benefits, as well as low legal activity in situations where the child's right is violated.
    A third of parents prefer not to use the benefit, fearing obstacles to its implementation. For children eligible for a federal benefit, the availability of drug coverage is significantly higher than for children with a regional benefit.

    Authors: Akulin I. M. [6] Sokolova V. V. [1]

    Tags: availability of medical care1 awareness of parents1 children13 legal activity of parents1 medical benefit1

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  • Public health
  • 2021 № 9 Elimination of preventable child mortality as a global task of the XXI century, including in the context of the COVID‑19 pandemic

    Despite a sharp reduction (by almost 60 percent) over the past 30 years in the mortality of children and young people, including those under the age of five, the global burden of this problem, according to the UN, remains enormous. The paper provides information on the analysis of data from foreign scientific literature on the indicators of child mortality and its causes in foreign countries, including in the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic. It is during the pandemic that many countries experience interruptions in the provision of maternal and child health services, such as medical examinations, vaccination, prenatal and postpartum care due to lack of resources. Studies show that the overall risk of death from COVID‑19 in children is quite low. The causes of infant mortality are mainly factors associated with neonatal mortality: premature birth, low birth weight, complications during childbirth, neonatal sepsis, as well as infectious diseases, more often pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria, and insufficient vaccination. In order to prevent and reduce global child mortality, strategies are needed to provide adequate medical and social services to the population, as well as poverty eradication programs.
    P u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y : to review foreign scientific literature containing information on the analysis of child mortality rates and its causes in foreign countries, including in the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic.
    M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s of research: bibliographic, information and analytical methods and methods of comparative analysis were used.
    R e s u l t s . Studies have shown that only 122 countries were able to achieve the target of mortality of children under the age of five, designated in the “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) ” – 25 or less deaths per 1,000 live births by 2019. The death rate of young children is highest in areas where the poor, ethnic or religious minorities, indigenous peoples and people who are discriminated against live. Studies conducted in 2020 showed that the overall risk of death from COVID‑19 in children is quite low.
    The COVID‑19 pandemic has led to serious disruptions in the work of health services, which threaten to negate efforts to eliminate child mortality.
    F i n d i n g s . In order to prevent and reduce global child mortality, strategies are needed to provide adequate medical and social services to the population, programs to eradicate poverty, and provide access to obstetric and prenatal services. Many countries are experiencing disruptions in the provision of maternal and child health services, such as medical examinations, vaccination, prenatal and postnatal care due to a lack of resources during the pandemic. Due to failures in the health system during the COVID‑19 pandemic, additional deaths of children are possible as a result of potential disruption of health systems.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Shigabutdinova T. N. [2] Mingazov R. N. [11] Allenov A. M. [1]

    Tags: children13 covid-1927 infant mortality2 preventable mortality1

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  • Population and healthcare

    Diabetes mellitus among children is one of the urgent health problems due to high morbidity and disability.
    Objective – establishing the main trends in the incidence of children.
    Materials and methods. A statistical analysis of the data of reporting forms of federal statistical observation No. 12 “Information on the number of diseases registered in patients living in the service area of a medical organization” for the period from 2014 to 2018 was carried out.
    Results. During the analyzed period, the incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Russian Federation among children aged 0–17 years increased by 28,1%. In dynamics for 2014–2018 the primary incidence of diabetes among children aged 0–17 years in the Russian Federation increased by 15,5%. In 94,9% of cases of diabetes in children account for type I diabetes. In dynamics for 2014–2018 it grew by 26,2%.
    Conclusion. The results of the analysis of diabetes mellitus among children indicate the need for the development of primary prevention of type I in children and raising public awareness of a healthy lifestyle in children

    Authors: Golubev N. A. [6] Ogryzko E. V. [11] Liutsko V. V. [5] Shelepova E. A. [2]

    Tags: children13 diabetes mellitus6 general morbidity4 primary morbidity5

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  • 2018 № 8 Base trend on number of Russian children (aged 0–14) require for medical supervision in 2000–2015 years

    Growth of Russian children’s incidence is confirmed with many special researches. As has shown the anal¬ysis of Federal statistical observation (form No. 12) for 2000–2015 years, in Russia the number of children at the age of 0–14 years require for medical supervision has grown from 302,6 to 309,0 cases for 1000 per population of the corresponding age (2,1%). The highest increase took place on classes: new growths (105,3%), congenital anomalies (malformations) (63,0%), injuries, poisonings, etc. (56,3%). Decrease in number of the children (0–14 years) require for medical supervision is noted on the following classes: pregnancy, childbirth and postnatal period (–70,0%), separate conditions of the perinatal period (–60,6%), some infectious and parasitic diseases (–59,5%), mental disorders and disorders of behavior (–43,1%). The balance of number of the studied group of children for 2015 year is 6,1% at the expense of bigger number registered (55,3%), in comparison with number of struck off the register (49,2%). At the same time the maximum plus balance was observed on the following classes of diseases: separate conditions of the perinatal period (46,5%), injuries, poisonings, etc. (80,0%), diseases of respiratory organs (21,3). The minus balance of number is noted on classes: some infectious and parasitic diseases (–11,6%), mental disorders and disorders of behavior (–2,4%). The number of children require for medical supervision in Russia for the studied period has grown. As soon as, the health of children and teenagers defines health of future nation, its preservation is an important task, which real¬ization demands development of measures for treatment of diseases of this contingent, and, above all – holding preventive actions with definition of their address introduction (school, the house, healthcare institutions).

    Authors: Banteva M. N. [9] Matveev E. N. [3] Manoshkina E. M. [7]

    Tags: children13 dispensary observation3 incidence of children2 medical examination of children1 medical supervision1 routine medical inspections1

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  • 2023 № 5 Arterial hypertension among children and adolescents as a prognostic risk factor. Problems of diagnosis.

    An analysis of modern studies has shown that arterial hypertension, detected in childhood, is one of the main risk factors for both cardiovascular diseases and the progression of renal failure in subsequent age periods, which indicates the importance of early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this condition among children and children. teenagers. The increase in the prevalence of hypertension among children and the associated health risks actualize the issues of the level, methods, techniques and frequency of blood pressure screening, differentiation of primary and secondary hypertension for successful treatment and control of the disease, as well as the development of
    methods for analyzing multiple factors for accurate diagnosis and prediction of spread. arterial hypertension. Of greatest research interest are the issues of accurate measurement of blood pressure during routine medical examinations of children, including invasive or noninvasive methods for measuring blood pressure in newborns, the availability of proven equipment and specialists in pediatric hypertension, and the interpretation of blood pressure measurements.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Valeev V. V. [4] Bezymyanny A. S. [3] Traskovetskaya I. G. [1]

    Tags: adolescents3 arterial hypertension2 children13 hypertension2 prevalence6

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  • 2023 № 5 Medical and social problems of the prevalence of ENT diseases and the availability of otorhinolaryngological care to the population, including children (review of foreign literature)

    An analysis of foreign scientific sources suggests that the prevalence of otorhinolaryngological diseases in the world is high and affects the increase in disability and mortality rates. The most common pediatric otorhinolaryngological disease worldwide is otitis media. Low availability of specialized otorhinolaryngologist care and socioeconomic disadvantage are associated with earlier, more frequent and severe ENT disease in children. The most vulnerable to otitis media leading to hearing loss are children of low socioeconomic status (even in developed countries) and indigenous children in all countries of the world. In low- and middle-income countries, pediatric
    otorhinolaryngology faces challenges associated with a lack of infrastructure and equipment, a relatively small health care budget, a shortage of medical staff, and a lack of political will. In multicultural developed countries, the lack of understanding in medical institutions of the need to take into account ethno-cultural characteristics, as well as a decrease in confidence in medical institutions, creates constant barriers to access to medical services.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Oleinik A. V. [2]

    Tags: accessibility3 children13 ent diseases3 medical and social problems1 otorhinolaryngological care2 prevalence6

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  • 2022 № 8 The issue of age-related characteristics of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the population of various countries

    Without interventions to halt the rise in diabetes, it is believed that by 2045 there will be at least 629 million people living with diabetes in the world. Currently, four out of five people with diabetes, approximately 80% of the world’s 463 million, live in lowand middle-income countries, and the incidence of diabetes is increasing in poorer, marginalized, socioeconomically vulnerable and indigenous communities. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes with onset in youth, defined as diabetes diagnosed before the age of 25, is increasing worldwide. It should be noted that type 2 diabetes, which occurs at a young age, most often manifests itself in the second decade of life. There are about 652 thousand children with type 2 diabetes in the world. It is estimated that there will be around 41,600 new cases of diagnosed type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents worldwide in 2021. Along with the increase in the prevalence of diabetes among children and adolescents, there is an increase in the incidence of pre-diabetes preceding the development of type 2 diabetes. They found an 8% risk of progression from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes over a 3-year period, confirming the importance of interventions to reduce obesity, pre-diabetes, and insulin resistance.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4]

    Tags: adolescents3 age1 children13 countries of the world1 diabetes mellitus6 prevalence6 youth1

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  • 2022 № 9 The role of risk factors in childhood on the formation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    An analysis of literature on COPD in children has shown that COPD arises from an accelerated decline in lung function, an inability to achieve normal lung function after childhood, or a combination of the two. Risk factors for the development of COPD are considered negative environmental influences; maternal smoking, intrauterine development disorders, prematurity, low birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as frequent or severe respiratory infections in childhood (especially respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus) that prevent the full growth and development of the lungs; asthma in childhood; early allergic sensitization and/or a rare genetic disorder (alpha‑1 antitrypsin deficiency), childhood chronic cough, parental history of respiratory disease, and low educational attainment. Particularly vulnerable are children from socio-economically low strata of the population, in particular,
    from among the indigenous population of multi-ethnic countries. In low- and middle-income countries, diagnosing COPD is difficult, and the disease may go undiagnosed. Bronchial asthma in childhood can be considered as an independent risk factor for COPD in adulthood. At the same time, the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome is widespread, the risk of which is especially high among individuals with persistent and severe childhood asthma, which is highly dependent on genetics. Targeted programs are needed to reduce the risk of adverse pulmonary outcomes in disadvantaged children, as well as the integration of specialized outreach services into primary health care. The WHO COPD core package includes protocols for assessing, diagnosing and managing COPD, as well as modules on healthy lifestyles, including smoking cessation and self-help, and development of rehabilitation services.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4] Babaev Y. A. [1] Smbatyan S. M. [2]

    Tags: bronchial asthma2 children13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)1 risk factors15

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  • Medical statistics
  • 2020 № 4 Statistics of obesity in children in the Russian Federation for 2014–2018 years

    The article presents the statistics of obesity in children for 2014–2018. Over the analyzed period, the overall incidence of obesity in the Russian Federation among children aged 0–17 years increased by 21,4%. In the dynamics for 2014–2018, the primary incidence of obesity among children aged 0–17 years in the Russian Federation increased by 8,7%. The results of the analysis of statistics on obesity among children indicate the need to pay attention to the promotion of breastfeeding, the nutrition of pregnant women, a balanced diet of children and physical activity.

    Authors: E.  V.  Ogryzko [1] E.  A.  Shelepova [1] E.  M.  Tyurina [1]

    Tags: children13 general incidence1 obesity1 primary incidence1

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  • 2020 № 5 Incidence of microsporia and trichophytis in the Russian Federation in 2013–2018

    Introduction. Purpose. Study of the incidence of microsporia and trichophytis among children. Material and methods. Data of forms of federal statistical observation No. 9 “Data on sexually transmitted infections and contagious skin diseases” in the federal districts of the Russian Federation for the period from 2013 to 2018. The work uses descriptive statistics. Main results. An analysis of the incidence of microsporia in the Russian Federation showed that in the federal districts the dynamics of indicators among children was almost similar to the total population. The highest incidence is found in the Volga and Southern federal districts, both in the general population and among the child population. During the period under study, the incidence of microsporia decreased by 0.2% in the general population and by 8.1% in the infant population. Indicators of trichophytis in both the general population and the infant population were also unstable. At the same time, the incidence of trichophytis in the general population decreased by 7.1%, in children by 11.5%. The most disadvantaged situation in trichophytia was observed in the North Caucasus Federal District, further as the Far East and Siberian federal districts declined. Among the children between the ages of 0 and 14, an unprecedented high incidence rate is observed in the North Caucasus Federal District: from 28.8 in 2014 to 34.7 in 2016, which is higher than in the country as a whole by 4, 4 and 6.7 times, respectively. Conclusion. During the period under study, the incidence of microsporia decreased by 0.2%, among the infant population – by 8.1%, the incidence of trichophytia – 7.1% and 11.5%, respectively.

    Authors: Golubev N. A. [6] Ogryzko E. V. [11] Sachek O. I. [1] Os’kova L. P. [1] Shevchenko A. G. [1] Ju. I. Os’kov [1]

    Tags: children13 federal districts2 general population1 incidence4 indicators5 microsporia1 trichophytics1

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  • Management in health care
  • 2016 № 8 Family-oriented approach to child health care

    In this review article you can consider the parent involvement in children medical care, because in paediatric practise precisely parents can influence good relationship with parents and whole healthcare system, what is more they can influence the compliance on attitude between patient (parents or legal representatives) and health provider. The last decade researches indicate the necessity of parent involvement in all stages of medical assistance to children, moreover the last surveys showed that family-centred approaches are highly-efficient. The competence of paediatricians in working with parents and the concept of family-oriented approach in foreign literature are being considered in this topic. Moreover, the advantages of using family-centred approach and barriers, including staff shortages, interrupting the process of using this model, are being under special control in this topic. There are many variants of changing and ways of implementation offering in this article. In conclusion, there is a statement that implementation family-centered medical care to children in whole medical care system requires comprehensive changes in all stages of medical care quality ensuring, including medical care organizers professional outlook, adjusting the regulatory framework and standards of training specialists.

    Authors: Bebchuk M. А. [1]

    Tags: children13 family psychologist1 family-centered medical care1 parental training1 parents1 pediatrician1 physician training standard1 quality of medical care20

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  • Healthcare economics
  • 2023 № 7 Rehabilitation and preventive measures for infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system in children, considering the risk factors.

    The article presents an analysis of the materials of domestic and foreign scientific articles on the issues of modern features of the prevalence of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system among children and rehabilitation and preventive measures, taking into account risk factors. Information on the so-called internal risk factors, such as congenital malformations of the genitourinary system and disorders of the immunological state of the body, leading to infectious and inflammatory diseases (pyelonephritis, urinary tract infections, cystitis, urethritis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, etc.) is considered in detail. The emergence, in particular, of pyelonephritis can be facilitated by late breastfeeding, early transfer to mixed and artificial feeding. The risk group also includes children born to mothers with pyelonephritis, which is associated with heredity and perinatal risk factors (complicated pregnancy in the mother, chronic intrauterine fetal hypoxia, intrauterine growth retardation). Taking into account the whole variety of risk factors will make it possible to build programs for medical and social prevention and rehabilitation for infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system in children.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Gasajnieva M. M. [3]

    Tags: children13 infectious and inflammatory diseases1 rehabilitation and preventive measures1 risk factors15 urogenital system1 uronephrological diseases1

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