• 2023 № 5 Arterial hypertension among children and adolescents as a prognostic risk factor. Problems of diagnosis.

    An analysis of modern studies has shown that arterial hypertension, detected in childhood, is one of the main risk factors for both cardiovascular diseases and the progression of renal failure in subsequent age periods, which indicates the importance of early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of this condition among children and children. teenagers. The increase in the prevalence of hypertension among children and the associated health risks actualize the issues of the level, methods, techniques and frequency of blood pressure screening, differentiation of primary and secondary hypertension for successful treatment and control of the disease, as well as the development of
    methods for analyzing multiple factors for accurate diagnosis and prediction of spread. arterial hypertension. Of greatest research interest are the issues of accurate measurement of blood pressure during routine medical examinations of children, including invasive or noninvasive methods for measuring blood pressure in newborns, the availability of proven equipment and specialists in pediatric hypertension, and the interpretation of blood pressure measurements.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Valeev V. V. [4] Bezymyanny A. S. [3] Traskovetskaya I. G. [1]

    Tags: adolescents3 arterial hypertension2 children13 hypertension2 prevalence6

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  • 2023 № 1 Bronchitis in children’s populations of different countries, risk factors

    The issues of etiology, clinical presentation, distribution, diagnosis and treatment of bronchitis, as one of the most common respiratory diseases among children, are of considerable research interest. Risk factors for bronchitis are considered meteorological indicators (wind speed and direction, anomalies in relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, a decrease or increase in temperature), environmental pollution (tobacco smoke, NO2 and PM10), immune dysfunctions, preterm birth, exclusive breastfeeding for ≤ 4 months of life. Currently, a significant place in the research literature is occupied by the issues of acute, protracted bacterial and plastic bronchitis in children. Acute bronchitis is mainly caused by a viral infection, mainly rhinovirus, enterovirus, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, with bacteria detected in 1–10% of cases. Protracted bacterial bronchitis, isolated as a clinical diagnosis since 2006, can occur in up to 88,5% of cases in children with chronic wet cough, wheezing and airway deformities, more often in children under 6 years of age and males. Prolonged bacterial bronchitis is mainly caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. It is believed that recurrent bronchitis (>3 episodes/year) and the presence of H. influenzae infection in the lower respiratory tract may be significant risk factors for bronchiectasis Plastic bronchitis, a rare disease, in the
    pediatric population is associated with cardiothoracic surgery (Fontaine operation), infections (viruses influenza, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, tuberculosis, adenoviruses, in particular serotype 7), inflammatory and allergic diseases, acute chest syndrome and iatrogenic processes.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4] Smbatyan S. M. [2] Kanchukoev Z. I. [1]

    Tags: acute bronchitis1 bronchitis in children1 child populations1 plastic bronchitis1 protracted bacterial bronchitis1 risk factors15

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  • 2022 № 9 The role of risk factors in childhood on the formation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    An analysis of literature on COPD in children has shown that COPD arises from an accelerated decline in lung function, an inability to achieve normal lung function after childhood, or a combination of the two. Risk factors for the development of COPD are considered negative environmental influences; maternal smoking, intrauterine development disorders, prematurity, low birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as frequent or severe respiratory infections in childhood (especially respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus) that prevent the full growth and development of the lungs; asthma in childhood; early allergic sensitization and/or a rare genetic disorder (alpha‑1 antitrypsin deficiency), childhood chronic cough, parental history of respiratory disease, and low educational attainment. Particularly vulnerable are children from socio-economically low strata of the population, in particular,
    from among the indigenous population of multi-ethnic countries. In low- and middle-income countries, diagnosing COPD is difficult, and the disease may go undiagnosed. Bronchial asthma in childhood can be considered as an independent risk factor for COPD in adulthood. At the same time, the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome is widespread, the risk of which is especially high among individuals with persistent and severe childhood asthma, which is highly dependent on genetics. Targeted programs are needed to reduce the risk of adverse pulmonary outcomes in disadvantaged children, as well as the integration of specialized outreach services into primary health care. The WHO COPD core package includes protocols for assessing, diagnosing and managing COPD, as well as modules on healthy lifestyles, including smoking cessation and self-help, and development of rehabilitation services.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4] Babaev Y. A. [1] Smbatyan S. M. [2]

    Tags: bronchial asthma2 children13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)1 risk factors15

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  • 2022 № 8 The issue of age-related characteristics of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the population of various countries

    Without interventions to halt the rise in diabetes, it is believed that by 2045 there will be at least 629 million people living with diabetes in the world. Currently, four out of five people with diabetes, approximately 80% of the world’s 463 million, live in lowand middle-income countries, and the incidence of diabetes is increasing in poorer, marginalized, socioeconomically vulnerable and indigenous communities. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes with onset in youth, defined as diabetes diagnosed before the age of 25, is increasing worldwide. It should be noted that type 2 diabetes, which occurs at a young age, most often manifests itself in the second decade of life. There are about 652 thousand children with type 2 diabetes in the world. It is estimated that there will be around 41,600 new cases of diagnosed type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents worldwide in 2021. Along with the increase in the prevalence of diabetes among children and adolescents, there is an increase in the incidence of pre-diabetes preceding the development of type 2 diabetes. They found an 8% risk of progression from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes over a 3-year period, confirming the importance of interventions to reduce obesity, pre-diabetes, and insulin resistance.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4]

    Tags: adolescents3 age1 children13 countries of the world1 diabetes mellitus6 prevalence6 youth1

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