2023 № 2 Features of the structure and dynamics of morbidity rates in children and adolescents in the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Analysis of the incidence of children and adolescents in the Republic of Azerbaijan for 2014–2019 showed that the largest share in the structure of the general morbidity of children was occupied by respiratory diseases – 47,5%, certain conditions that occur in the perinatal period – 18,1%, some infectious and parasitic diseases – 9,1%, diseases of the digestive system – 8,5%, The largest increase in the level of primary morbidity in children in 2019 compared to 2014 was observed in mental and behavioral disorders – by 370,1% in the age group 0–5 years and by 208,4% in the age group 14–17 years, by 49,7% in the age group of 6–13 years; diseases of the eye and its accessory apparatus – by 41,5% in the age group of 0–5 years, by 15,2% in the age group of 14–17 years and by 13,4% in the age group of 6–13 years; neoplasms – by 28,4% in the age group of 0–5 years and 26% in the age group of 6–13 years.
2023 № 5 Medical and social problems of the prevalence of ENT diseases and the availability of otorhinolaryngological care to the population, including children (review of foreign literature)
An analysis of foreign scientific sources suggests that the prevalence of otorhinolaryngological diseases in the world is high and affects the increase in disability and mortality rates. The most common pediatric otorhinolaryngological disease worldwide is otitis media. Low availability of specialized otorhinolaryngologist care and socioeconomic disadvantage are associated with earlier, more frequent and severe ENT disease in children. The most vulnerable to otitis media leading to hearing loss are children of low socioeconomic status (even in developed countries) and indigenous children in all countries of the world. In low- and middle-income countries, pediatric
otorhinolaryngology faces challenges associated with a lack of infrastructure and equipment, a relatively small health care budget, a shortage of medical staff, and a lack of political will. In multicultural developed countries, the lack of understanding in medical institutions of the need to take into account ethno-cultural characteristics, as well as a decrease in confidence in medical institutions, creates constant barriers to access to medical services.
2023 № 3 Lifestyles of students, including with disturbances in physical development during the COVID‑19 pandemic
The article deals with issues that characterize the lifestyle of students in the context of the COVID‑19 pandemic. A number of researchers found that during this period, cases of physical and mental health disorders, non-compliance with the norms of good nutrition, a significant decrease in physical activity, changes in the physical parameters of the body, weight gain, etc. became more frequent among students.
Materials and methods. An international methodology was applied to assess the structure of the students’ lifestyle – the Health-Promoting
Lifestyle Profile Questionnaire (HLPP-II). The methodology takes into account the characteristic features of 6 integral components (responsibility for health, physical activity, nutrition, spiritual growth, interpersonal relationships and stress management). For the purpose of comparative analysis, 505 students surveyed were divided into 3 groups depending on the body mass index: those with underweight, with normal body weight, and those with excess body weight.
Findings. The results obtained made it possible to establish that among those with a deficiency or excess of body weight compared with those with normal body weight, there were significantly more students with a low level of severity of all 6 considered components of the overall level of health.
2022 № 9 The role of risk factors in childhood on the formation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
An analysis of literature on COPD in children has shown that COPD arises from an accelerated decline in lung function, an inability to achieve normal lung function after childhood, or a combination of the two. Risk factors for the development of COPD are considered negative environmental influences; maternal smoking, intrauterine development disorders, prematurity, low birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as frequent or severe respiratory infections in childhood (especially respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus) that prevent the full growth and development of the lungs; asthma in childhood; early allergic sensitization and/or a rare genetic disorder (alpha‑1 antitrypsin deficiency), childhood chronic cough, parental history of respiratory disease, and low educational attainment. Particularly vulnerable are children from socio-economically low strata of the population, in particular,
from among the indigenous population of multi-ethnic countries. In low- and middle-income countries, diagnosing COPD is difficult, and the disease may go undiagnosed. Bronchial asthma in childhood can be considered as an independent risk factor for COPD in adulthood. At the same time, the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome is widespread, the risk of which is especially high among individuals with persistent and severe childhood asthma, which is highly dependent on genetics. Targeted programs are needed to reduce the risk of adverse pulmonary outcomes in disadvantaged children, as well as the integration of specialized outreach services into primary health care. The WHO COPD core package includes protocols for assessing, diagnosing and managing COPD, as well as modules on healthy lifestyles, including smoking cessation and self-help, and development of rehabilitation services.
2022 № 8 The issue of age-related characteristics of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the population of various countries
Without interventions to halt the rise in diabetes, it is believed that by 2045 there will be at least 629 million people living with diabetes in the world. Currently, four out of five people with diabetes, approximately 80% of the world’s 463 million, live in lowand middle-income countries, and the incidence of diabetes is increasing in poorer, marginalized, socioeconomically vulnerable and indigenous communities. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes with onset in youth, defined as diabetes diagnosed before the age of 25, is increasing worldwide. It should be noted that type 2 diabetes, which occurs at a young age, most often manifests itself in the second decade of life. There are about 652 thousand children with type 2 diabetes in the world. It is estimated that there will be around 41,600 new cases of diagnosed type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents worldwide in 2021. Along with the increase in the prevalence of diabetes among children and adolescents, there is an increase in the incidence of pre-diabetes preceding the development of type 2 diabetes. They found an 8% risk of progression from pre-diabetes to type 2 diabetes over a 3-year period, confirming the importance of interventions to reduce obesity, pre-diabetes, and insulin resistance.
2022 № 6 Peculiarities of the quality of life of students, including with disturbances in physical development, under the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic
In the context of the COVID‑19 pandemic, student youth are facing significant adverse impacts that affect the state of physical and mental health, as well as changes in quality of life indicators. Factors such as the sudden transition of students to online learning, the closure of hostels, limited access to public spaces, an increase in morbidity in the close environment, the manifestation of fears and phobias had a negative impact. Students have irregular meals, limited access to good nutrition, increased time spent in front of the monitor, less opportunities for physical activity and associated significant changes in physical parameters, namely obesity, an increase in body mass index weight.
Materials and methods: bibliographic, socio-hygienic, sociological, statistical, analytical methods were used in the work.
Findings. Analysis of the results of the study made it possible to establish: a) the average level of the physical component of students’ health is higher than the psychological one; the indicator of the physical component of health, corresponding to the norm, was observed in 70.7% of students; psychological – in 63.4% of students; no statistically significant relationship was found between the physical and psychological components of students’ health; b) in terms of the physical and psychological components of health, the largest percentage of respondents with a norm was noted among students with a lack of body weight; a low level of the physical component of health is much more common in the group of students with excess body weight, compared with the other studied groups
2022 № 4 Physical activity of students during the COVID‑19 pandemic as a health-saving perspective
According to the WHO, physical activity contributes to the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases. Lack of fitness is considered an important cause of future lifestyle-related diseases, including metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. People with low levels of physical activity have higher body mass index, higher waist circumference and fat mass than those with high levels of physical activity. In recent decades, especially during the COVID‑19 pandemic, physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles have become a major global public health problem, even among younger populations. All this suggests the special importance of the physical activity of students in difficult life situations, including the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic.
Purpose: to review foreign scientific literature containing information about the characteristics of physical activity of students during the COVID‑19 pandemic and their impact on health indicators, about risk factors and ways to level them.
Materials and methods: bibliographic, information-analytical and methods of comparative analysis.
Results: during the COVID‑19 lockdown, students, regardless of baseline fitness scores, reduced time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity, increasing sedentary lifestyle and screen time. At the same time, first-year students turned out to be the most vulnerable to lifestyle changes due to isolation due to the difficulties of adapting to the conditions of study at the university and to the new realities during the COVID‑19 pandemic. During the lockdown, there has been an increase in the positive relationship observed before the pandemic between students’ physical activity indicators and gender, weight, psychological state and year of study. There is a greater adaptability of women to the conditions of isolation, women more often retained physical activity due to concern for health and shape. Women were more sociable, more often used social networks when doing physical exercises.
Findings: when developing strategies to stimulate physical activity and create a favorable environment for its implementation during isolation, one should take into account gender differences, socio-cultural factors, the role of the family and close circle, the role of educational organizations. Promoting physical activity among students during the COVID‑19 pandemic requires the joint efforts of the family, the public, the state, health organizations and educational institutions.
2022 № 3 Global social challenges in infertility problems
The problem of infertility remains a global problem of mankind according to WHO and today, infertility affects about 10–
25% of couples of reproductive age worldwide, estimates vary from 48 to 186 million. When developing recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility in 2020, WHO did not revise the definition of infertility given in 2009, together with the International Monitoring Committee on Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ICMART) in the “Glossary of Definitions of Infertility and Treatment of Infertility”, where infertility is considered a disease reproductive system, defined as the inability to achieve clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse. The same is the definition of male and female infertility in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD11). Higher rates of infertility are found in less developed countries/regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, North Africa/Middle East, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia. At the same time, the researchers note that geographical differences in the level of infertility are associated with environmental, cultural and social factors. The etiology of infertility has different epidemiological characteristics depending on the region.
Purpose: to review foreign scientific literature containing information on the prevalence of infertility in countries around the world, the role of social factors in its formation, and the availability of treatment assistance.
Materials and methods: bibliographic, information-analytical methods and methods of comparative analysis.
Results: in modern research in the field of studying the social factors of childlessness, special attention is paid to the description and clustering of groups of childless women. The global problem of infertility is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes, financial hardship, severe social stigma, increased risk of domestic violence, and marital instability. It has been shown that women with less than secondary education are less likely to seek help for infertility treatment than women with higher education. In high-income countries, immigrant women, uninsured women are less likely to have access to fertility treatment, and they are less informed about their rights, even if they seek treatment at a later age.
Findings. Geographic differences in the prevalence of infertility in different countries are largely determined by social factors. The study of social factors of infertility in women showed that infertility is associated with a low quality of life. Although the likelihood of infertility in men and women is the same, and male infertility is responsible for more than half of all childlessness in the world, infertility remains primarily a social burden for women, especially in pronatalist societies. Women from wealthy backgrounds are more likely to have access to quality fertility treatment.
2021 № 10 PREVENTIVE EXAMINATIONS OF MINORS AS PART OF NEW GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID‑19 PANDEMIC
The article discusses the medical and organizational aspects of conducting preventive examinations of minors as part of new state initiatives of a post-COVID‑19 orientation. The main positions of the Draft Order of the Ministry of Health of May 19, 2021, which will enter into force on September 1, 2021, have been studied, where a structural algorithm has been developed for conducting preventive examinations of minors in the context of an epidemic situation. The regulated positions presented in the document have been studied in the aspect of general medical tasks declared by the state during the modern period of development of the healthcare industry. Such directions, formed in the Project, as diagnostics of post-COVID‑19 complications from various systems of the body of minors, issues of monitoring of reproductive health and physical development are considered. The continuity is shown in the implementation of measures to level violations of the health status of minors within the framework of legislative, managerial
and organizational initiatives.
Purpose: analysis of modern legislative materials initiated by the State in the field of preventive examinations of minors, including during the period of the new coronavirus infection COVID‑19; characteristics of the concept of new directions of the program of preventive examinations of minors.
Materials and methods. The analytical sources of the study were the legal framework, scientific literature data on the issues of preventive examinations of minors. Methods were used in the work: bibliographic, analytical, statistical, comparative analysis.
Results. A comprehensive analysis showed that the algorithm for conducting preventive examinations of minors is determined by the legislative branch level and checked by the time factor, but is not a constant. Changing living conditions dictate new challenges, determine the inclusion of additional items in the survey of the contingent – laboratory and diagnostic directions, as well as change in time parameters in the examination and organizational support for preventive examinations of minors. The changes introduced undoubtedly require monitoring analysis of indicators on the problem, including comparative scientific analysis and prompt response to new tasks that are determined by time, issues of the medical and social environment.
Findings. The main organizational directions in the structure of preventive examinations of minors are: diagnostics of post-COVID‑19 complications, monitoring of physical development and the formation of reproductive health, determination of scientifically grounded approaches to admitting the contingent to physical education, the formation of a “data bank” of the results of basic and additional research methods. A comparative analysis of the prevalence of the distribution of minors by health groups based on the results of preventive medical examinations showed the lack of dynamics of indicators in the time period 2014–2020. Undergoing preventive medical examinations, as well as targeted regional policy in this direction, purposefully forming a “healthy childhood environment”, taking into account the development of the local industrial infrastructure.
2021 № 9 Elimination of preventable child mortality as a global task of the XXI century, including in the context of the COVID‑19 pandemic
Despite a sharp reduction (by almost 60 percent) over the past 30 years in the mortality of children and young people, including those under the age of five, the global burden of this problem, according to the UN, remains enormous. The paper provides information on the analysis of data from foreign scientific literature on the indicators of child mortality and its causes in foreign countries, including in the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic. It is during the pandemic that many countries experience interruptions in the provision of maternal and child health services, such as medical examinations, vaccination, prenatal and postpartum care due to lack of resources. Studies show that the overall risk of death from COVID‑19 in children is quite low. The causes of infant mortality are mainly factors associated with neonatal mortality: premature birth, low birth weight, complications during childbirth, neonatal sepsis, as well as infectious diseases, more often pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria, and insufficient vaccination. In order to prevent and reduce global child mortality, strategies are needed to provide adequate medical and social services to the population, as well as poverty eradication programs.
P u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y : to review foreign scientific literature containing information on the analysis of child mortality rates and its causes in foreign countries, including in the conditions of the COVID‑19 pandemic.
M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s of research: bibliographic, information and analytical methods and methods of comparative analysis were used.
R e s u l t s . Studies have shown that only 122 countries were able to achieve the target of mortality of children under the age of five, designated in the “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) ” – 25 or less deaths per 1,000 live births by 2019. The death rate of young children is highest in areas where the poor, ethnic or religious minorities, indigenous peoples and people who are discriminated against live. Studies conducted in 2020 showed that the overall risk of death from COVID‑19 in children is quite low.
The COVID‑19 pandemic has led to serious disruptions in the work of health services, which threaten to negate efforts to eliminate child mortality.
F i n d i n g s . In order to prevent and reduce global child mortality, strategies are needed to provide adequate medical and social services to the population, programs to eradicate poverty, and provide access to obstetric and prenatal services. Many countries are experiencing disruptions in the provision of maternal and child health services, such as medical examinations, vaccination, prenatal and postnatal care due to a lack of resources during the pandemic. Due to failures in the health system during the COVID‑19 pandemic, additional deaths of children are possible as a result of potential disruption of health systems.