Articles with tag: «risk factors»

    Sociology of healthcare
  • 2023 № 4 Aspects of the quality of the life of persons of working age with chronic noncommunicable diseases of the respiratory organs

    Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCD) are widespread and affect people of different age groups in all countries. The fight against this group of diseases is one of the priorities of the modern health care. Non-infectious diseases of the respiratory system as well as other diseases, affect social, physical and mental components of well-being. The qualitative assessment of their influence helps to assess the study of the quality of life.
    P u r p o s e : to assess the quality of life of the working-age population of the Nizhny Novgorod region and to develop measures to reduce the risk factors for chronic non-infectious diseases of the respiratory system in these cohorts.
    M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s . A one-stage comparative study was carried out using the method of standardized interviewing using the SF‑36 questionnaire. The quality of life of people of various age-gender groups with chronic non-infectious diseases of the respiratory system was assessed. All respondents were stratified into groups by pathology and age.
    R e s u l t s . The scientific article reflects the results of the study of assessing the quality of life of working-age patients with the chronic respiratory system pathology. The analysis of the data revealed statistically significant differences in age, gender and groups of pathologies among the respondents. Differences in indicators reflecting emotional states were revealed among men and women of the working age. Age-related changes in indicators of physical and psychological components of health and on all scales of the quality of life were presented. The obtained values of patient indicators show the need to develop specific measures to reduce behavioral risk factors for chronic non-infectious respiratory diseases of the population of the Nizhny Novgorod region.
    Findings. The comparative analysis of the results of the scales of the quality of life and health components reflects the age-related changes in indicators. The people of the older age group of the working age demonstrate significantly low results. The indicators of physical functioning are statistically significantly different in different pathologies of the respiratory system. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) restricts the physical activity of patients more strongly than other pathologies. Low values of the quality of life reflect the need to develop the measures to reduce the risk factors for chronic non-infectious diseases for the population of the Nizhny Novgorod region.

    Authors: Pozdeeva T.  V. [4] Sheyykhova S. S. [1] Kotova N. V. [1]

    Tags: chronic noncommunicable diseases3 people of working age1 prevention23 quality of life7 risk factors15 sf‑36 questionnaire1

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  • 2023 № 6 Behavioural risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases in health care workers.

    Low physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption are among the leading behavioural factors contributing to high morbidity and excess mortality from noncommunicable diseases. It can be assumed that health-care workers should be in the mainstream of population behavioural patterns. However, greater awareness of both the principles of healthy lifestyles and the harms of not following them may distinguish this population group in terms of behavioural responses.
    Purpose: to estimate the prevalence of behavioural risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases among health-care workers.
    Materials and methods. Study type: case-control study. Data source: results of the survey of the 28th wave of the Russian National Research University Higher School of Economics’ Monitoring of Economic Situation and Health, representative sample by individuals, survey year 2019. Responses received from respondents – health care workers about their use of tobacco, alcohol and exercise were analysed comparatively. Pearson Chi-square test at significance level p≤0,05 was used to find differences.
    Results. A sociological survey of 55 male and 257 female health workers of working age was carried out. We found that the incidence of a positive smoking response was lower in both male and female working-age health professionals than in the general population of working-age individuals. Compared with the general populations of men and women, no significant differences were found in responses to questions about alcohol consumption and exercise.
    Findings. We found that of the three behavioural factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity), only the first was significantly less prevalent among health professionals. The overall trends identified need to be investigated in more detail.

    Authors: Son I. M. [39] Menshikova L. I. [6] Shelygin K. V. [1]

    Tags: alcohol consumption2 chronic noncommunicable diseases3 exercise1 health workers1 risk factors15 smoking2

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  • Social aspects of health
  • 2019 № 3 Prevalence of socio-biological risk factors in pregnant women of Krasnoyarsk region and their impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes

    The aim of the study was to study the prevalence of socio-biological risk factors in pregnant women of the Krasnoyarsk territory and their impact on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The analysis includes data on 122 250 cases of pregnancy in the period from 2014 to 2017 in the Krasnoyarsk region. All analyzed cases of pregnancy were divided into 2 groups: group I – cases of pregnancy with unfavorable outcomes (8 290 cases), group II – cases of pregnancy with favorable outcomes (113 960 cases). The paper analyzes the following factors: mother’s age less than 18 years or 40 years or more, father’s age 40 years or more, the presence of the mother and father of occupational hazards, bad habits (smoking 1 pack of cigarettes a day, alcohol abuse), mother’s height 158 cm or less, as well as the mother’s body weight 25% higher than normal. To assess the impact of the studied factors on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, the odds ratio was calculated. The results of the study indicate that the presence of occupational hazards in the mother and her age less than 18 years do not affect the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. To the greatest extent, this risk is influenced by the presence of bad habits in the mother (smoking and alcohol abuse) and the father (alcohol abuse), as well as the presence of occupational hazards in the father. The use of information on the impact of various factors on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes will allow the most effective routing of pregnant women by levels of care to reduce, ultimately, the number of these outcomes. The results show that the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes is influenced by a fairly wide range of factors. In this case, each factor has a different degree of impact on the risk. Given these circumstances, it is necessary to further develop an integrated assessment of the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Authors: Kurbanismailov R. B. [3] Narkevich A. N. [3] Vinogradov K. A. [3] Mironova A. A. [2]

    Tags: perinatal care1 pregnancy4 pregnancy outcomes2 prevalence6 risk factors15

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  • POPULATION HEALTH
  • 2022 № 9 The role of risk factors in childhood on the formation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    An analysis of literature on COPD in children has shown that COPD arises from an accelerated decline in lung function, an inability to achieve normal lung function after childhood, or a combination of the two. Risk factors for the development of COPD are considered negative environmental influences; maternal smoking, intrauterine development disorders, prematurity, low birth weight, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as well as frequent or severe respiratory infections in childhood (especially respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus) that prevent the full growth and development of the lungs; asthma in childhood; early allergic sensitization and/or a rare genetic disorder (alpha‑1 antitrypsin deficiency), childhood chronic cough, parental history of respiratory disease, and low educational attainment. Particularly vulnerable are children from socio-economically low strata of the population, in particular,
    from among the indigenous population of multi-ethnic countries. In low- and middle-income countries, diagnosing COPD is difficult, and the disease may go undiagnosed. Bronchial asthma in childhood can be considered as an independent risk factor for COPD in adulthood. At the same time, the asthma-COPD overlap syndrome is widespread, the risk of which is especially high among individuals with persistent and severe childhood asthma, which is highly dependent on genetics. Targeted programs are needed to reduce the risk of adverse pulmonary outcomes in disadvantaged children, as well as the integration of specialized outreach services into primary health care. The WHO COPD core package includes protocols for assessing, diagnosing and managing COPD, as well as modules on healthy lifestyles, including smoking cessation and self-help, and development of rehabilitation services.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4] Babaev Y. A. [1] Smbatyan S. M. [2]

    Tags: bronchial asthma2 children13 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)1 risk factors15

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  • 2023 № 1 Bronchitis in children’s populations of different countries, risk factors

    The issues of etiology, clinical presentation, distribution, diagnosis and treatment of bronchitis, as one of the most common respiratory diseases among children, are of considerable research interest. Risk factors for bronchitis are considered meteorological indicators (wind speed and direction, anomalies in relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, a decrease or increase in temperature), environmental pollution (tobacco smoke, NO2 and PM10), immune dysfunctions, preterm birth, exclusive breastfeeding for ≤ 4 months of life. Currently, a significant place in the research literature is occupied by the issues of acute, protracted bacterial and plastic bronchitis in children. Acute bronchitis is mainly caused by a viral infection, mainly rhinovirus, enterovirus, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, with bacteria detected in 1–10% of cases. Protracted bacterial bronchitis, isolated as a clinical diagnosis since 2006, can occur in up to 88,5% of cases in children with chronic wet cough, wheezing and airway deformities, more often in children under 6 years of age and males. Prolonged bacterial bronchitis is mainly caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. It is believed that recurrent bronchitis (>3 episodes/year) and the presence of H. influenzae infection in the lower respiratory tract may be significant risk factors for bronchiectasis Plastic bronchitis, a rare disease, in the
    pediatric population is associated with cardiothoracic surgery (Fontaine operation), infections (viruses influenza, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, tuberculosis, adenoviruses, in particular serotype 7), inflammatory and allergic diseases, acute chest syndrome and iatrogenic processes.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Mingazov R. N. [11] Valeev V. V. [4] Smbatyan S. M. [2] Kanchukoev Z. I. [1]

    Tags: acute bronchitis1 bronchitis in children1 child populations1 plastic bronchitis1 protracted bacterial bronchitis1 risk factors15

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  • 2023 № 1 Socio-hygienic and clinical-microbiological features of the formation of reproductive health disorders in adolescent girls

    Studies show that inflammatory diseases of the small pelvis and inflammatory diseases of the external genital organs are risk factors for the formation of reproductive health disorders in adolescent girls, the reason for seeking advice and treatment in outpatient and inpatient medical organizations. It is generally believed that pelvic inflammatory disease, as a consequence of the activity of a polymicrobial infection, usually occurs in sexually active women and is rare in young women and adolescent girls who are not sexually active. However, worldwide the prevalence of pelvic inflammatory disease remains quite high among children and adolescent girls of prepubertal and sexually inactive age. In contrast, inflammatory gynecological diseases of the external genital organs are considered a common pathology in girls of early and prepubertal age, however, studies show that they are common among adolescent girls due to the high prevalence
    of risk factors. Early diagnosis and treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in adolescent girls is essential to ensure fertility and reproductive health in this population.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Zhelezova P. V. [3] Nepomnyashchaya G. G. [1]

    Tags: adolescents3 girls1 gynecological inflammatory diseases1 preventive measures1 reproductive health2 risk factors15

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  • Nominees
  • 2019 № 1 To the question of volume reducing of dispansserization and preventive examinations

    The beginning of mass prophylactic medical examination in Russia was accompanied by an excessive inclusion of screening methods and additional diagnostic interventions. Such tactic was not justified from the financial, economic and organizational point of view. Although in 2017 the volume of medical examination was significantly reduced, analysis of official documentation and reporting forms shows that imbalance in its structure is still preserved, and some methodic, used for screening and additional diagnostic, are not justified from position of evidence-based medicine. In 2015, only due to optimization of clinical examination structure on the first stage it would possible to reduce costs by more than 10 billion rubles, increasing the effectiveness of preventive interventions through rational reallocation of funds.

    Authors: Maksikova T. M. [1] Kalyagin A. N. [1]

    Tags: chronic non-infectious diseases2 dispansserization1 evidence-based medi¬cine2 financial and economic justification1 preventive examinations1 risk factors15

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  • Medical statistics
  • 2023 № 3 Retrospective analysis of the form of industry statistical observation №131/o regarding the registration of risk factors for development chronic non-communicable diseases

    To monitor, assess, analyze and register the prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors, the form of industry statistical reporting No. 131/o “Information on preventive medical examination and medical examination of certain groups of the adult population” is used.
    The quality and reliability of the primary statistical data presented in Form No. 131/o determines the further planning and implementation of preventive measures within the framework of interdepartmental interaction and cooperation with broad segments of the population.
    The reliability and quality of statistical materials collected during the medical examination of certain groups of the adult population should guarantee the adoption of adequate management decisions on the development of preventive medicine and the basis for improving the effectiveness of the public health system.
    Purpose: to conduct a retrospective analysis of the orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation regulating the procedure for filling out and submitting the form of industry statistical reporting № 131/o “Information on preventive medical examination and medical examination of certain groups of the adult population” for the period from 2013 to 2021, in terms of providing primary data on the registered risk factors.
    Material and methods. Content analysis of orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation regulating the procedure for filling out and submitting the form of industry statistical reporting № 131/o for 2013, 2015, 2020; reporting forms № 131/o; orders regulating the procedure for preventive medical examination and medical examination of certain groups of the adult population for the period from 2012 to 2021.
    Results. A retrospective analysis of the orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation regulating the procedure for filling out and submitting the form of industry statistical reporting № 131/o for the period from 2013 to 2021, in terms of providing primary data on the registration of risk factors, showed that, despite the shortcomings, only this form allows you to study and analyze information on the prevalence of risk factors and on this basis to identify priority areas for the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. That is, the analysis of form № 131/o allowed us to conclude that it is necessary not only to reconsider approaches to the organization of medical examinations and the collection of primary data, but also to modernize the concept of the largest preventive measure carried out within
    the framework of the state health system.
    Conclusions. A retrospective analysis of the orders of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation regulating the procedure for filling out and submitting the form of industry statistical reporting No.131/o for the period from 2013 to 2021, in terms of providing primary data on the registration of risk factors, showed that, despite the shortcomings, only this form allows you to study and analyze information on the prevalence of risk factors and on this basis identify priority areas for the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. The analysis of form No. 131/o allowed us to conclude that it is necessary not only to reconsider approaches to the organization of medical examinations and the collection of primary data, but also to modernize the concept of the largest preventive measure carried out within the framework of the state health system.

    Authors: Zakharchenko O. O. [2] Starodubov V. I. [40] Shikina I. B. [3] Terenteva D. S. [1]

    Tags: chronic non-communicable diseases4 medical examination of certain groups of the adult population1 preventive medical examination1 risk factors15 statistical reporting1

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  • Management in healthcare
  • 2023 № 7 Organization of preventive examinations of the adult population in the Healthy Moscow pavilions.

    The value and originality of the new organizational approach implemented in the Healthy Moscow program lies in the fact that mobile pavilions have been set up as part of a large-scale preventive examination of the population in convenient location accessibility – park areas, squares and recreation areas, which makes it possible to identify not only diseases at an early stages, but also risk factors among population groups who consider themselves healthy, as well as organize targeted promotion of a healthy lifestyle. During the period of the Healthy Moscow program, more than a million citizens underwent preventive examinations in the pavilions, and to a greater extent the population that, for a number of reasons, rarely visits polyclinics and who do not have pronounced symptoms of diseases. However,
    according to the results of the surveys, it was revealed that approximately 12% of the so-called healthy people have diseases.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Bezymyanny A. S. [3] Grinin V. M. [2]

    Tags: clinical examination2 health improvement2 healthy lifestyle promotion2 prevention23 risk factors15 screening programs2 “healthy moscow”2

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  • 2023 № 7 On the issue of peculiarities of organization of preventive measures for patients with cardiovascular diseases.

    The problem of prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases in Russia is particularly acute, among which diseases of the circulatory system occupy the first place, becoming widespread.
    O b j e c t i v e : to analyze and study the features of the organization of preventive measures for patients with cardiovascular diseases, especially the elderly population.
    M a t e r i a l s a n d m e t h o d s . For the analysis were literary sources, statistical reporting data, regulatory documents, and electronic resources. In the context of this study, such methods as: studying and generalizing experience, content analysis, a systematic approach, and statistical analysis were used.
    R e s u l t s . In the framework of the study revealed a high overall and primary morbidity of BSK in older age groups, so you need to increase the interest of the population in activities of preventive medicine, in which medical services are provided free of charge; analyzed the main preventive measures in the world and the example of some of the subjects of the Russian Federation; the main role of physical activity of the population in the fight against CVD is determined; the main problems in the framework of prevention at the regional level are identified: low interest of the population in health care and low the problem of distribution of preventive measures in the framework of VHI programs is studied.
    C o n c l u s i o n . Higher common and primary morbidity of CVD in elderly age groups of population requires as priority-driven active enhancement of commitment of population in effective medical prevention on the basis of free-of-charge medical care and services. The key role of physical activity of population in prevention of CVD is approved. Among regional problems of CVD prevention of priority importance are critically low commitment of population in one’s own health care and inadequate exploration of prevalence of preventive activities within the framework of implementation of VMI programs.

    Authors: Zagoruychenko A. A. [8] Karpova O. B. [5] Nechaev V. S. [2]

    Tags: adult population4 cardiovascular diseases3 diseases of the circulatory system2 prevention23 risk factors15

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  • 2019 № 4 Prevention of chronic non-infectious diseases prevention in Russia: possibilities of optimization

    Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) remain the cause of three-fourths of deaths in Russia, but their control is not productive enough. Achieving of planned mortality reduction to 2025 among employable persons by 25,4%, from cardiovascular diseases – by 16,5% and from cancer – by 6% is possible only due to CNCD prevention. However, the costs on the «Centers of Health» activity are not justified from the point of view of their effectiveness, and dispanser- ization is not yet fully balanced in structure and volume. The analysis of some financial, organizational, methodological, legal and reporting documents makes will be it possible to identify problems and to offer systemic measures to optimize CNCD prevention.

    Authors: T.  M.  Maksikova [1] A.  N.  Kalyagin [1]

    Tags: chronic non-infectious diseases2 dispanserization1 organizational problems1 prevention23 risk factors15 the centers of health1

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  • Management in health care
  • 2015 № 5 Risk factor for mortality from cardiovascular diseases: the expert estimation doctors of various specialties

    No statistically significant differences in the average score evaluation by physicians of different specialties of each indicator (p > 0,05 for each item). Average effect on mortality from cardiovascular diseases comorbid somatic pathology according to the doctors is 3,5±1,5, and more than a third of experts evaluated the contribution of comorbid somatic pathology in maximum 5 points. Average impact of comorbid psychopathology — 2,7±1,4; comorbid diseases caused by alcohol and drug use — 3,5±1,5; failure to doctor's recommendations — 4±1,3; ignorance of the major risk factors for the Ivory Coast, or the rejection of their correction — 3,8±1,4; ignorance of the main manifestations (symptoms) of life-threatening diseases or complications requiring first aid and emergency medical services — 3,9±1,4. Almost 50% of specialists have put the maximum score in the answers to the last two questions. Аccording to doctors at the level of regional mortality from BSK is strongly influenced by physical and mental comorbid pathology, ignorance of the risk factors, symptoms and methods of providing emergency assistance in the Ivory Coast.

    Authors: Samorodskaya I. V. [7] Boytsov S. A. [7] Vatolina M. A. [2] Barbarash O. L. [1] Ovcharenko O. N. [1] Bykovskaja T. J. [1] Kovalenko T. N. [1]

    Tags: cardiovascular disease4 mortality21 risk factors15

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  • Issue statement
  • 2014 № 12 Regional experience of the organization of work of the Centers of health on the example of the Smolensk region (Department of health care, Smolensk, Russia)

    Annotation. This review presents regional experience of improving preventive measures in the Smolensk region on the example of the organization of the health center. The results of analysis of sectoral statistical monitoring indicators of different categories of patients visiting health centers Smolensk region for the period 2010–2014. (2014 results are presented for the first 9 months). The dynamics of the number of persons trained in healthy lifestyles in-depth individual prevention counseling and thematic School of Health, the number of patients who visited the Health Centre in the Smolensk region in 2010–2014, represented the organization of exit work Regional Health Center. The role of health centers in improving the system of medical prevention in primary care Smolensk region.

    Authors: Stepchenkov V. I. [2] Batrova Y. V. [2] Lebedeva N. A. [1]

    Tags: chronic noninfectious diseases1 medical prevention2 mobile teams1 organization of work health centers1 risk factors15 schools of health1

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  • Healthcare economics
  • 2023 № 7 Organization of preventive examinations of the adult population in the Healthy Moscow pavilions.

    The value and originality of the new organizational approach implemented in the Healthy Moscow program lies in the fact that mobile pavilions have been set up as part of a large-scale preventive examination of the population in convenient location accessibility – park areas, squares and recreation areas, which makes it possible to identify not only diseases at an early stages, but also risk factors among population groups who consider themselves healthy, as well as organize targeted promotion of a healthy lifestyle. During the period of the Healthy Moscow program, more than a million citizens underwent preventive examinations in the pavilions, and to a greater extent the population that, for a number of reasons, rarely visits polyclinics and who do not have pronounced symptoms of diseases. However,
    according to the results of the surveys, it was revealed that approximately 12% of the so-called healthy people have diseases.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Bezymyanny A. S. [3] Grinin V. M. [2]

    Tags: clinical examination2 health improvement2 healthy lifestyle promotion2 prevention23 risk factors15 screening programs2 “healthy moscow”2

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  • 2023 № 7 Rehabilitation and preventive measures for infectious and inflammatory diseases of the urinary system in children, considering the risk factors.

    The article presents an analysis of the materials of domestic and foreign scientific articles on the issues of modern features of the prevalence of infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system among children and rehabilitation and preventive measures, taking into account risk factors. Information on the so-called internal risk factors, such as congenital malformations of the genitourinary system and disorders of the immunological state of the body, leading to infectious and inflammatory diseases (pyelonephritis, urinary tract infections, cystitis, urethritis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, etc.) is considered in detail. The emergence, in particular, of pyelonephritis can be facilitated by late breastfeeding, early transfer to mixed and artificial feeding. The risk group also includes children born to mothers with pyelonephritis, which is associated with heredity and perinatal risk factors (complicated pregnancy in the mother, chronic intrauterine fetal hypoxia, intrauterine growth retardation). Taking into account the whole variety of risk factors will make it possible to build programs for medical and social prevention and rehabilitation for infectious and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system in children.

    Authors: Mingazova E. N. [27] Gasajnieva M. M. [3]

    Tags: children13 infectious and inflammatory diseases1 rehabilitation and preventive measures1 risk factors15 urogenital system1 uronephrological diseases1

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