All articles by Kanchukoev Z. I.
2023 № 1 Bronchitis in children’s populations of different countries, risk factors
The issues of etiology, clinical presentation, distribution, diagnosis and treatment of bronchitis, as one of the most common respiratory diseases among children, are of considerable research interest. Risk factors for bronchitis are considered meteorological indicators (wind speed and direction, anomalies in relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, a decrease or increase in temperature), environmental pollution (tobacco smoke, NO2 and PM10), immune dysfunctions, preterm birth, exclusive breastfeeding for ≤ 4 months of life. Currently, a significant place in the research literature is occupied by the issues of acute, protracted bacterial and plastic bronchitis in children. Acute bronchitis is mainly caused by a viral infection, mainly rhinovirus, enterovirus, influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus, with bacteria detected in 1–10% of cases. Protracted bacterial bronchitis, isolated as a clinical diagnosis since 2006, can occur in up to 88,5% of cases in children with chronic wet cough, wheezing and airway deformities, more often in children under 6 years of age and males. Prolonged bacterial bronchitis is mainly caused by the bacteria Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis. It is believed that recurrent bronchitis (>3 episodes/year) and the presence of H. influenzae infection in the lower respiratory tract may be significant risk factors for bronchiectasis Plastic bronchitis, a rare disease, in the
pediatric population is associated with cardiothoracic surgery (Fontaine operation), infections (viruses influenza, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, tuberculosis, adenoviruses, in particular serotype 7), inflammatory and allergic diseases, acute chest syndrome and iatrogenic processes.