2020 № 3 Population relation research to the healthy lifestyle (on the example of the fish and suburban region of Republic of Tatarstan)
One of the main tasks of modern health care is decrease in incidence and noninfectious diseases mortality of the population which are preventable at observance of a healthy lifestyle, early identification and timely effective treatment. Results of a sociological research of the relation to a healthy lifestyle on estimates of adult population of the Fish and Suburban Region of Republic of Tatarstan are presented in article. Purpose: reveal commitment of the population to a healthy lifestyle, investigate connection of a healthy lifestyle with presence of noninfectious diseases. The research is conducted on the basis of questionnaire by method of random check of adult population. 2346 respondents from 21 year to 74 years took part in questioning. Authors developed the questionnaire concerning commitment of the population to a healthy lifestyle and presence of noninfectious diseases.. The average physical activity among all respondents is slightly higher than 20%. The commitment to a healthy power supply in all groups does not exceed 25%. Respondents aged from 31 to 40 years are most committed to healthy nutrition. Among the polled respondents smoke 22.21%, regularly take alcohol of 0.2%. From among the respondents who noted presence of cardiovascular diseases of 98.6% monthly visit the doctor and regularly take medicines; with digestive tract diseases monthly visit the doctor of 16.3% and regularly take the drugs of 18.5% of respondents; from among respondents with diabetes regularly take the drugs and monthly visit the doctor of 100%. Analyzing data retrieveds, authors came to a conclusion that the commitment to a healthy lifestyle among the population does not exceed 30%. Results of questioning of the population can be used when developing the address program of treatment-and-prophylactic actions for forming of commitment to a healthy lifestyle for each age group.
2019 № 2 The sistem of the pushing influences (Nudge) as a factor of increase in efficiency of formation at the population of commitment to a healthy lifestyle
Results of the researches devoted to studying of a role of a system of the pushing impacts on increase in efficiency of prevention of noninfectious diseases and formation of commitment to a healthy lifestyle are presented in the review of literature. These literatures demonstrate that a complex of actions on increases in efficiency of prevention of noninfectious diseases and pushing of the population to maintaining a healthy lifestyle by change of a context of the environment and indirect impact on their representations concerning a healthy lifestyle have the proved efficiency and has a certain potential for reduction of risk of development of noninfectious diseases. Article is constructed on pilot studies of the foreign scientists connected with identification of features of thoughts and behavior of people at assessment and forecasting of uncertain situations within which, in particular, it is shown that people are mistaken at decision-making and their mistakes are subordinated to certain psychological regularities which are revealed and well experimentally proved by researchers. It is about fundamental laws of social psychology in the field of decision-making: heuristics in decision-making, the subjective probability, forecasting psychology, irrational predictability, causal and diagnostic conclusion, the theory of attribution and an error of attribution, tendency to conformality, assessment of difficult probabilities, intuitive forecasting, etc. Most fully the description of experiments in Russian is submitted at D. Kahneman , and the applied aspect is most fully presented in . On the basis of the carried-out analysis of foreign and Russian literature of approaches to the organization of prevention in the field of noninfectious diseases and formation of a healthy lifestyle we allocated incentives and factors which do not bear in themselves the direct bans or restrictions, but are capable to have a necessary impact on people in terms of formation of a healthy lifestyle and prevention of noninfectious
2019 № 10 Overview of interdepartmental programs for public health care
“In the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 07.05.2018 No. 204 “About the national purposes and strategic problems of development of the Russian Federation until 2024” achievement of the following target indica¬tors is established: increase by 2024 in the expected life expectancy at the birth till 78 flyings and till 80 flyings by 2030)”. Prevention of noninfectious diseases on an interdepartmental basis is necessary for achievement of such indicators. We carried out the overview of federal orders, resolutions, a regulatory framework and interdepartmental programs for public health care. The analysis of literature showed that in the Russian Federation development and realization of the strategy, projects and programs directed to prevention of noninfectious diseases and forming of commitment of the population to a healthy lifestyle is conducted many of which are between sectoral and use the principles of “Health in all strategy”.