There is given a valuation of age-sex differences in Russian Federation. There is definied the number of years of life lost as a result of premature mortality in the subjects of Russian Federation. Minimal mortality indexes among male population are marked in the age of 11 years old (25,4 per 100 thousand), among female population at the age of 10 (18,2 per 100 thousand). The maximum differences in indexes of mortality are marked in the age group of 20–29 years old (314,5 per 100 thousand men against 92,3 per 100 thousand women). Quantity of men died before reaching the age of 70 years among men — 63,2%,among women — 29,9%. Total quantity of lost lives due to premature mortality in Russian Federation is estimated in 36 864 309, among them 24 321 992 (65,9%) as a result of men's mortality and 12 542 317 (34,1%) among women. All subjects of Russian Federation demonstrate higher indexes of lost lives than in other economically developed countries. The highest percentage of lost lives due to premature mortality (before 70 years old) is noticed among men in the areas of Siberia and Far East.