CONTENT OF THE ISSUE
Medical ontologies: current development, main trends and features
The topic of the article is computer ontologies in medicine and bioinformatics. In the article, ontologies are considered as the description method. The specifics, pros and cons of this approach to formalization are discussed. The article provides an overview of popular medical ontologies. Those more used by scientists and doctors, such as SNOMED, Gene Ontology, RxNorm, etc are covered more detailed. Nowadays computer ontologies are widely known in medicine. They are being used for the formalization of accumulated human experience and computerization, for open knowledge bases creation. However, in the future, combined with artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies medical ontologies can be in demand as a subject area describing method when creating decision support systems such as diagnostic recommendation systems.
Means of intellectual data analysis and support of decision-making in diagnostics and treatment of drug-dependent
Early detection of the drug used by the patient is essential In the diagnosis and treatment of drug addicts. There are specific symptoms of drug use, according to which it is determined that the patient used before the laboratory tests. The use of methods of data mining allows you to identify the characteristic signs of using several drugs and establish previously unexplored symptoms for new drugs, identify typical and atypical patients. In the work, the patterns between the narcotic drugs used and the symptoms are mathematically described using associative rules. Algorithms Apriori, Close and the MClose algorithm proposed by the authors are used to find these rules. The MClose algorithm finds the most significant strict associative rules (rules with reliability 1). The article presents a proposal on expert pre-pro- cessing of melon, which allows to significantly reduce the number of generated associative rules and improve the quality of their interpretation. The developed methods and means is aimed at diagnosing and supporting decision-making in the treatment of drug addicts.
The possibility of using Google’s services for adoption of management decisions in organization of emergency medical aid
Not achievement of the indicative indicators reflecting development of emergency medical care testifies to need of the analysis of the reasons and acceptance of the administrative decisions directed to its improvement. The growing popularity of e-applications in medicine, the active application programs and application among patients, the high prevalence of medical communities in social networks – on the one hand, and the lack of a developed system of support of managerial decision-making in the health sector, on the other, raises the question about the use of existing Internet services in the activities of medical organizations for managerial decision-making. The purpose of the study was to identify the possibilities of using Google services for management decisions aimed at improving the organization of emergency medical care. The sociological method included an online study of the opinion of legal representatives of children on emergency medical care using Google services. The analy- sis revealed a number of problems in the organization of emergency medical care for children, causing limited availability of primary health care in emergency form for children, the solution of which requires operational management decisions. The results of using Google services in solving these problems can be used by the heads of medical organizations and health authorities
Telemedicine: whom, what and how to teach
This article is devoted to the issue of professional training for the new organizational-technological area of health care- telemedicine. The history of this area development in Russia, basic concepts and definitions is briefly considered. On the basis of our long-term experience, recommendations are given on training of specialists in various fields involved in the application of remote technologies for providing of medical care and professional education in medicine.
The role and prospects of information and communication technologies in developing of physician competencies
The authors review capabilities and prospects of developing the physician competencies using information and communication technologies. Based on the functionality of medical information systems implemented in healthcare, the learning electronic health records (LEHR) has been developed. The experience with integrating LEHR to the educational process of medical students at Siberian State Medical University is reviewed. General logistics of the interactions between a tutor and a student is presented. Based on LEHR, learning electronic patient records for different clinical subjects are developed. Prospects of using the virtual patient technology in distance learning for life-long continuous medical education are analyzed.
One method decomposition for securing personal data in medical information systems
Ensuring the security of information in medical information systems is essential to protect patients and medical personnel from unlawful harmful effects on them when unauthorized access to information. We propose a method of de-identification on the basis of anonymization of personal data pseudonymisation in IIAs. The method of decomposition based on the division of personal data into parts and the storage of these parts in different repositories is studied. this data security is achieved due to the complexity of the process of matching data from different repositories, since the placement of personal data in different repositories is carried out in different ways. In addition to the initial anonymisation of personal data, has the possibility of geometrician anonymized data that requires additional processing. To improve the objectivity of the findings of the survey it is proposed to store in the archive of the information system the results of processing the data at all stages. It will allow to restore results at malicious penetration into MIS, to carry out additional processing with application of different methods, to compare results of different patients at different stages of processing
Forecasting the stage of adenomiosis with neural networks
Adenomyosis is a widespread gynecological disease, which is often accompanied by infertility. There are problems with the diagnosis of the disease, since the disease has various clinical manifestations, including often asymp- tomatic course of the disease. Due to the complexity of the diagnosis and according to different sources, its frequency varies from 5% to 70%. An equally difficult problem is determining the stage of the disease. The stage determines the tactics and strategy of treating patients. A sample of 84 patients with adenomyosis, using the Spearman rank correla- tion coefficient, revealed indicators that are interrelated with the stages of the disease. In this work, the application of the heuristic procedure to neural networks for predicting the laboratory-clinical indicators of the adenomyosis stage is considered. A software application has been developed that allows you to predict the stage of adenomyosis without resorting to hysterectomy. The methodological value of the work is that, using the example of a common gynecological disease, it is shown that the use of modern data analysis tools opens up wide possibilities for solving prognostic prob- lems of determining patients’ belonging to certain classes according to the stages or types of the disease. Software applications that automate the procedure for classifying patients can form the basis of various systems of support for making medical decisions.
The Network model for Estimation of duration laser contact lithotripsy
The comparative characteristic of network models with random parameters is executed. It is offered to use as model of the lithotripsy procedure the stochastic network model. In article is examine the assessments questions of laser lithotripsy duration time. The original network alternative stochastic model of the procedure of a laser contact lithotripsy allowing to realize assessment of operation length of a laser lithotripsy in general is developed. It is shown that frequency curve of runtime of stages of operation is described by beta-distribution. Are given the mathematical expressions allowing to calculate optimistic, pessimistic and most probable assessment of duration of separate stages of a lithotripsy and operation in general
Diagnosis and treatment of liver failure: multiset model
The paper considers the use of multisets or sets with repeating elements in the modeling of diagnosis and treatment of hepatic failure, taking into account various forms of the disease, the stages of its course, variants of therapeutic tactics depending on the form of liver failure. Models “Patient with hepatic failure“ and “Treatment of hepatic failure“ allow to provide an effective selection of personalized medical tactics.
Terminology and standardization
Decision support systems
It in education
Processing of the personal data
Artificial intelligence in health care